To provide accurate adoption recommendations for the emerging technology, we have further segmented universities into two subgroups. The first is established universities. All established universities uphold (a) a strong, national, and established brand image, (b) a large endowment, (c) field(s) of specialization or of exceptional notoriety, and (d) notable or recognizable faculty in their respective academic fields. The second is lesser-established universities. To be clear, all lesser-established universities are viewed "lesser-established" in the sense that they are compared to the more established universities previously mentioned. All lesser-established universities either (a) have weak, non-established brand images, (b) hold fields of specialization that are trumped by more established universities, or (c) are local/community based with no global outreach.

Established Universities -- MOOC Creation
We recommend established universities follow an aggressive approach in becoming an adopter of the technology. By creating a MOOC, the university will gain the ability to share knowledge from its academic fields of specialization with students and institutions on an international scale. As a result, established universities will gain increased faculty recognition, potential revenue from offering certifications for course completion, and increased brand awareness. Sharing the MOOCs with a technical platform also enables the cross-collaboration across participating universities. The established university also joins an elite network of other established universities to initiate educational impact beyond its campus. To enable MOOC creation, necessary funding must be available. Once a university has decided to create its own MOOCs, it must then choose which platform on which to develop. Here, we explore each in turn and offer our recommendation for a course of action.

Coursera
Coursera has almost 2 million users and almost 35 registered universities-- domestic and international-- all of which are high performing (11). The wide selection of courses, topics, and professors makes Coursera a platform that supports cross-collaboration across participating universities. Coursera also is looking to expand its certification capabilities for students who complete its courses by offering a university-branded certification with the consent of the university. This advancement, unique to Coursera, may serve as an additional revenue stream for the university itself. Given these benefits and subsequent detractors of edX and Udacity explored below, we recommend that universities take a fast-follower approach to using Coursera as its technical MOOC platform.

edX
edX a highly exclusive MOOC platform, as it hosts only MIT, Harvard, UC Berkeley, and University of Texas. The not-for-profit has a queue of almost 200 universities waiting to join the program (10). Due to the low entry rate, and comparatively small user base of 150,000 relative to Coursera, we do not recommended this platform.

Individual/Udacity
This platform option involves creating an individual, Udacity-like, unique platform on which to host MOOCs. Here, universities would be responsible for hosting, creating, monitoring, and maintaining its MOOCs and platform. In addition to being significantly more costly, we foresee this alternative requiring significantly more attention and effort on behalf of the university (and even more on behalf of the individual professors) to upkeep and monitor the platform. Additionally, even if the university were to engage in this offering, it would not have access to the established user-base that Coursera currently attracts.

Established Universities -- MOOC Integration
Established universities should also consider MOOC integration. For those institutions that launch their own MOOCs as explained above, we suggest that these MOOCs take on the role of an additional educational resource within the particular university itself. Doing so would enhance the traditional educational experience and allow students on-campus to gain access to the university's material outside the classroom. An aggressive approach should also be taken here to ensure that once the MOOCs are created by a university, its own open online courses are being used by its population and made accessible to its students.

We recommend further integration within established universities even if they forgo MOOC creation. Adopting the use of MOOCs can allow universities to enhance their current curricula and introduce further insight from institutions of a similar caliber. Taking a fast-follower approach can ensure that institutions are exposing their students to additional educational material and leveraging all resources available. Simply put, established university should not ignore this powerful technology; as MOOC technology continues to expand internationally, universities must view it as an opportunity to improve instruction quality across multiple disciplines and to incorporate the educational products of institutions on a global scale.

Lesser-Established Universities -- MOOC Creation
Lesser-established universities should forgo MOOC creation given the current conditions. As for Coursera and edX, only universities with established brand images have been granted the ability to use the technical platforms to host their MOOCs. There are costs involved in purchasing the hardware and software to create a MOOC that may exceed their limited budget as well. Even if the lesser-established university were to incur these costs, MOOC users still might be reluctant to enroll in the course because they would be uncertain course and instructor quality. For example, a MOOC user would clearly favor a Harvard MOOC from edX over a MOOC created by the Community College of Allegheny College purely the basis of brand recognition. This finding does not mean that lesser-established universities should ignore the technology altogether, however. In fact, these institutions can still use MOOC technology in alternative way (see below).

Lesser-Established Universities -- MOOC Integration
Lesser-established universities ought to embrace MOOC integration by incorporating the MOOCs of larger universities or platforms into their curricula. Bunker Hill Community College, for example, has already formed a partnership with edX to gain access to its platform of massive open online courses. By bringing the curriculum of elite universities into the classroom Bunker Hill, the institution itself has experienced a boost in educational quality and gained the ability to deliver a more efficient learning system to its students. Additionally, the MOOC model has allowed students to further engage with the material on an independent basis. In turn, this has allowed for more interaction between instructor and student interaction in the classroom. We recommend that lesser-established universities take a fast-follower approach to gain exposure to the high-caliber education offered by the MOOCs of universities on technical platforms. MOOCs may be used in tandem with the current curricula or be used in a more aggressive approach to expand new academic territory or replace existing, inefficient academic offerings.